Ovdje ste: Homepage Reformation in Croatia Important Slavic Protestant Reformers Stephanus Consul Histrianus
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Important Slavic Protestant Reformers

(Buzet, 1521 – Eisenstadt, Burgenland, Austria, 1579)

The well-known Istrian Protestant, Stjepan Konzul Istranin, came from among those priests who were using the Glagolitic script. He was born in Buzet in 1521. There is no information available about his schooling but we know that he was a Glagolitic priest in Central Istria (in Old Pazin). After embracing Protestantism he was banished in 1549: he was forced to leave his parish and go into exile. He first went to Ljubljana and then to Carniola, where he served as a Protestant preacher.

In 1552 Konzul joined Primož Trubar in Rothenburg ob der Tauber in Germany and the following year he moved to Kempten together with Trubar. He later taught singing in Regensburg. In 1557 he began translating Trubar’s Slovenian translation of the New Testament into Croatian. Slavic Protestants, including Antun Dalmatin and Grgur Vlahović positively evaluated his translations in 1559 and argued that his texts could be understood throughout a wide geographical area including Croatia, Dalmatia, Bosnia and Serbia. Together with Hans Ungnad Konzul organized the work of the Slavic Protestant publishing house in Urach (which functioned between 1561 and 1565). He published Tabla za dicu together with Dalmatin, on the basis of Trubar’s texts. He also printed a Lutheran catechism and then the New Testament in Croatian, more precisely Prvi i drugi del Novoga Testamenta, “The First and Second Part of the New Testament”. After the printing of the first part Trubar and Konzul had a disagreement about the quality of the translation and they broke off their cooperation. In 1562 Konzul travelled to Istria and showing around his books and translations he attempted to gain moral and financial support for the work of the publishing house. However, after Ungnad’s death in 1564 the publishing house did not have a patron anymore. That same year Archduke Charles II (who ruled Inner Austria)  came to power and the situation in the South Slavic lands under Habsburg control changed considerably. Charles differed from his much more tolerant brother, the Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian II, and promoted the Catholic Counter-Reformation. In 1564 he began to persecute Protestants and burned their books in Styria, Carinthia, Carniola, along the coast and in the Duchy of Pazin.
Konzul returned to Regensburg in 1566, where in 1568 the printer Johann Burger published his and Dalmatin’s translation of Johannes Brenz’s Postila in the Latin script. After Regensburg, Konzul moved to Eisenstadt in western Hungary at the invitation of a local nobleman, where he preached Protestant doctrines among the newly arrived Croatian inhabitants. He died there in 1579.

Works :

In the Glagolitic script

- Pokusni list (1560)
- “Tabla za dicu” (1561)
- “Mali glagoljski Katekizam” (1561)
- “Katekizam” (1561)
- “Edni kratki razumni nauci” (1562)
- “Artikuli ili deli prave stare krstianske vere” (1562)
- “Postila” (1562)
- “Prvi del Novoga Testamenta” (1562)
- “Drugi del Novog Testamenta” (1563)
- “Edna kratka summa nikih prodik od tuče” (1563)
- “Beneficium Christi - Govorenje vele prudno” (1563)
- “Spovid i spoznanje prave krstianske” (1564)
- “Bramba Augustanske spovedi Apologia imenovana” (1564)

In Cyrillic
- Pokusni list u Urachu (1561)
- “Katekizam” (1561)
- “Razumni nauci” (1562)
- “Artikuli” (1562)
- “Prvi del Novog Testamenta” (1563)
- “Drugi del Novog Testamenta” (1563)
- “Postila” (1563)

In the Latin script
- “Katekizam” (1563)
- “Crikveni Ordinalic” (1564)
- “Bramba” (1564)
- “Spovid” (1564)
- “Beneficium” (1565)
- “Prvi del Postile” (1568)
- “Drugi del Postile” (1568)

In Italian
- “La confessione della fede” (1562)
- “Catechismo picciolo” (1562)
- “Postila” (1562)
- “Artikuli - Confesiones tres” (1562.-1563)
- “La defesa della confessione” (1563)
- “Esposizione del salmo LI e CXXX” (1564)
- “Methodus doctrinae ecclesiae Magdeburgiensis” (1564 or 1565)
- “Tratatto utilissimo” (1565)