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Important Slavic Protestant Reformers
Primus Truber, the Slovenian Luther PDF Print E-mail
Important Slavic Protestant Reformers

Primoz TrubarThe accomplishments of Protestant Reformer and author Primus Truber (Primož Trubar, 1508–1586) are of outstanding importance for Slovenian culture. He was the author of the first books in Slovenian (Abecedarium and Catechismus, 1550) and the first translator of the Bible (Psalms, 1566; the complete New Testament, 1582) into Slovenian. Today Truber is considered to be the founder of Slovenian literature and of the modern Slovenian language, having developed its theological and juridical terminology.

He played an important role in helping to establish and run the Slavic Protestant printing press in Urach, where some of his books were printed. Altogether, he published about 30 works between 1550 and 1586, mostly in Slovenian but also in German. Among them was the first printing of Slovenian music.

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Antun Dalmatin (Antonius Dalmata) PDF Print E-mail
Important Slavic Protestant Reformers

(First half of the 16th century – Ljubljana, 1579)

dalmatinIt is assumed that he came from northern Dalmatia (Zadar) or the Croatian Littoral (Senj). He was a Protestant writer, translator and publisher. He served as a Glagolitic monk in central Istria, where he was exiled from because he supported the Reformation. He moved to Ljubljana, where he started collaborating with the prominent Croatian Protestants Juraj Juričić, Grgur Vlahović, Matija Živčić and Stephan Consul Istrian. He soon became one of Consul’s closest associates, working on translations, editing and setting Protestant Glagolitic, Cyrillic and Latin editions of the Bible and other religious books. From 1561 to 1566 he served Baron Johann Ungnand and worked at the Slavic Printing Press in Urach. His responsibilities at the printing press included translation of the New Testament into Croatian (published in 1563).  There are thirty-two editions known that he worked on. He translated from Slovenian, German, Latin and Italian, he was the editor and proofreader of the religious books printed in Glagolitic, Cyrillic (Bosnian Cyrillic) and Latin alphabets, aimed to spread the Reformation ideas in Croatian countries. He translated Johannes Brenz’s Württemberg catechism from German. 

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Paulus Scalichius PDF Print E-mail
Important Slavic Protestant Reformers

(Zagreb, 1534 – Gdańsk, 1577)
pavao skalicHe was the son of a poor schoolmaster from Zagreb. After his studies and doctorate in philosophy in Vienna and theology in Bologna he managed to make his way into various European courts, allegedly using forged documents and false titles of marquis, duke and baron. Due to forgery and other frauds he was occasionally persecuted by different European countries and their courts.
For a while he served as the court preacher of Emperor Ferdinand in Vienna, but he was exposed and left for Tübingen, where he accepted Protestantism. As a protégé of Duke Christoph von Württemberg and Baron Hans Ungand he started giving lectures at Tübingen University. For a long period of time he lived and worked as a theology professor in Königsberg, where he even became the prime minister for the Prussian duke, Albrecht (1490–1568). Because of his frauds he was forced to run away so he hid in Paris and tried to make peace with the Roman Catholic Church. He later moved to Münster and died on his way to Prussia, where he had been allowed to return.
Skalich wrote expositions on theology, philosophy, historiography and occultism in Latin, often plagiarizing others’ works. He published twenty-five theological and other books, and took part in collecting the sources for ‘The Magdeburg Centuries’. He also had disagreements with Primus Truber.

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Pietro Paolo Vergerio the Younger PDF Print E-mail
Important Slavic Protestant Reformers

(Koper/Capodistria, Slovenia, 1498 – Tübingen, 1565)

Vergerio was born in Capodistria (today the town of Koper in Slovenia), located on the north-western tip of the Istrian peninsula. He came from a wealthy and reputable family. One of his forefathers who had the same name (Pietro Paolo Vergerio the Elder, 1370-1444) had been a well-known writer and teacher in Italy.
Vergerio studied law in Padua and after obtaining his doctorate worked as a lawyer and a judge in Italy. After his wife’s death he became a priest and served as a legate of Popes Clement VII (1478-1534) and Paul III (1468-1549). As a papal nuncio and diplomat Vergerio visited Luther in Wittenberg in 1535. As a reward for a successful trip to Wittenberg, Ferdinand I approved in 1536 that Vergerio be given the bishopric of Modrus in Croatia and later in his home town of Capodistria.
He was excommunicated from the Catholic Church in 1549 because he preached Reformation doctrines openly, and he fled to the Swiss Confederation. At first he was a pastor in Vicosoprano in Graubünden (Grisons), but he found his parish too unimportant because he desired to spend more time at the courts of the German princes.

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Stephanus Consul Histrianus PDF Print E-mail
Important Slavic Protestant Reformers

(Buzet, 1521 – Eisenstadt, Burgenland, Austria, 1579)

The well-known Istrian Protestant, Stjepan Konzul Istranin, came from among those priests who were using the Glagolitic script. He was born in Buzet in 1521. There is no information available about his schooling but we know that he was a Glagolitic priest in Central Istria (in Old Pazin). After embracing Protestantism he was banished in 1549: he was forced to leave his parish and go into exile. He first went to Ljubljana and then to Carniola, where he served as a Protestant preacher.

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Juraj Cvečić (Zwetzitsch, Cuetschisch) PDF Print E-mail
Important Slavic Protestant Reformers

(Pazin, ca. 1520 – Ravne, Slovenia, 1585)

Cvečić was a Glagolitic priest from Istria who converted to Protestantism. After graduating from Wittenberg University in 1522 he went to Metlika, Slovenia, where he became a preacher. At Klombner’s recommendation (and contrary to Trubar’s wishes) he left Metlika in 1561 and moved to Urach in Germany. There he began to translate the Augsburg Confession and Spangenberg’s Postil into Croatian with Glagolitic script. He also knew how to set type for the printing machine. Cvečić translated Paul’s epistles to the Ephesians, Philippians, Colossians, and to Timothy, Titus and Philemon, but only portions of these translations were printed. He tried to translate Luther’s House Postils (Hauspostille), David’s Psalms, the Second Book of Moses (Exodus), then the Old and New Testaments, but these plans never came to pass because preparations, negotiations and the finding of coworkers and funding took too long. At the same time, expenditures were high, and finally, the printing press was closed after Ungnad’s death. Cvečić had been in charge of maintaining contact between the printing press in Urach and the Reformers in the Croatian lands and in Carniola. His responsibility was to find translators, people who would distribute books, and to deliver Ungnad’s letters to Primus Truber and to members of the Carniolan nobility. He spent two longer periods of time in Urach and in between he was staying at his property in Pazin. In one of his letters to Ungnad, Cvečić mentioned that he owed money to Matthias Flacius.

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Juraj Juričić PDF Print E-mail
Important Slavic Protestant Reformers

(Novi Vinodol, beginning of the 16th century – Ljubljana, 1578)

He was a writer, Glagolitic monk and a philologist, who turned to the Reformation, and stood out as a preacher in Kamnik and Ljubljana, proofreader of Croatian and Slovenian editions at The Slavic Printing Press in Urach, church text translator and publisher. He had spent a year in the Printing Press in Urach, but even after he moved to Slovenia he worked as a co-worker for the Slavic Printing Press and did translations. He translated St. Paul’s epistles to the Ephesians, Philippians, Colossians, Thessalonians, Timothy, Philemon and Titus for the Glagolitic and Cyrillic part of the New Testament; he worked on Glagolitic ‘Beneficium’ and ‘Prodike od tuče, ’and he translated the complete book of ‘Crikveni ordinalic’. He wrote in Croatian and Slovenian.

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